ECE 484
Principles of Advanced Microelectronic Processing

Displaying course information from Spring 2014.

Section Type Times Days Location Instructor
N LCD 1100 - 1220 T R   168 Everitt Lab  Kanti Jain
Web Page
Official Description Principles of advanced methods of pattern delineation, pattern transfer, and modern material growth; how these are applied to produce novel and high performance devices and circuits in various electronic materials with special emphasis on semiconductors. Computer simulation of processes and the manufacturing of devices and circuits. Course Information: 3 undergraduate hours. 3 graduate hours. Prerequisite: ECE 444.
Subject Area Microelectronics and Photonics
Course Prerequisites Credit in ECE 444
Course Directors Kanti Jain
Detailed Description and Outline


  • Types of microelectronic devices; types of microelectronic fabrication processes; critical role of process technologies in evolution of microelectronic devices.
  • Microlithography. Fundamental elements and attributes. Types of microlithography: optical, e-beam, X-ray, EUV. Sources, resists, exposure concepts, applications.
  • Optical projection lithography; steppers and scanners. Excimer lasers as dominant sources; key features. Photoresists: main constituents and functions; performance parameters.
  • Ion implantation. Key objectives. Advantages over diffusion. Ion implantation systems. Projected range. Distribution profiles. Channeling. Damage mechanisms.
  • Dry etching. Types of dry etching technologies. Process parameters. Sputtering. Reactive ion etching. Plasma etching. Dry etching systems. Etching gases and chemistry.
  • UV laser photoablation. Photochemistry. Ablation systems. Key applications in diverse fields.
  • Deposition. Types of deposition processes. Physical vapor deposition. RF sputtering. Process parameters. E-beam evaporation.
  • Chemical vapor deposition. Reaction mechanisms. Types of CVD systems. LPCVD. PECVD.
  • Epitaxy. Process parameters. Metallo-organic CVD. Molecular beam epitaxy. Defect generation.
  • Isolation. Key objectives. Process steps. Trenches. Deep trench isolation. Deep etching systems.
  • Microelectronic packaging. Primary functions. Packaging hierarchical levels. Types of packaging. Packaging materials. Thin-film interconnect processes. Thermal management. Package design.
Computer Usage
Process simulation on workstations.
S. Campbell, The Science and Engineering of Microelectronic Fabrication, 2nd ed., Oxford Press, 2001; chapters from several other books; numerous journal articles; proceedings of conferences; and industry reports
Course Goals

This course is designed for students who have taken a first course in semi­conductor device fabrication that includes laboratory instruction. The course covers advanced topics in semiconductor device processing and is directed at senior-level and first-year graduate students. The goals of this course are to enable students to understand the principles of advanced methods of pattern delineation, pattern transfer, doping, modern material growth, and how these technologies are applied to produce novel and high-performance devices and circuits in various semiconductor materials.

Instructional Objectives

A. Upon completion of the instructional units on Lithography, the students should be able to:

1. Identify the key attributes of microlithographic processes in fabrication of electronic devices and important criteria in achieving high resolution and high speed. (a, g)

2. Understand the fundamentals of different types of optical lithography techniques, including contact and proximity printing, projection imaging, and direct writing. (a, e, g)

3. Illustrate the basic system concepts of modern optical lithography steppers and scanners, including resolution, projection lenses, modulation transfer function, and depth of focus. (a, e, g, k, m)

4. Explain the fundamentals of excimer lasers as dominant sources for semiconductor lithography and important criteria for their use in manufacturing. (a, e, g, k)

5. Identify the key constituents and functions of polymeric resists and understand their main performance parameters, including contrast, spectral sensitivity, and process conditions.
(a, b, e, g)

6. Understand the principles and key attributes of non-deep-ultraviolet lithography techniques, including electron-beam, X-ray, and extreme ultraviolet lithography.
(a, b, e, g)

7. Learn the key distinctions in lithographic requirements for semiconductors and other major electronic devices, including displays, flexible electronics, and microelectronic packages. (a, e, g)

B. Upon completion of the instructional units on Ion Implantation and Deposition, the students should be able to:

1. Understand the primary objectives of the ion implantation process in the fabrication of semiconductor devices, its advantages over thermal diffusion, and its limitations. (a, g)

2. Identify the key ion species introduced as dopants by implantation, ranges of ion energies and current densities, and types of device and process applications of ion implantation.
(a, g)

3. Illustrate the operation and key components of ion implantation systems, including ion source, analyzer, accelerator, focus unit, trap, gate, and scanner. (a, e, g, k)

4. Learn the fundamentals of range distribution, projected range, straggle, and lateral straggle. Understand collision phenomena, including nuclear and electronic stopping mechanisms. (a, g, m)

5. Investigate special topics in ion implantation, including multiple implant profiles, buried implants, masking, channeling, and defect generation. (a, b, e, g)

6. Identify and classify the different physical and chemical methods prevalent in the microelectronics industry for depositing metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics. (a, g)

7. Explain the fundamentals of the evaporation process, types of evaporation systems, evaporation rate parameters, and techniques for deposition of alloys and layered films.
(a, b, g, k, m)

8. Understand the key features of the sputter deposition process and its main advantages. Become familiar with sputter deposition systems and their components. (a, e, g, k)

9. Illustrate the basics of sputtering mechanisms. Investigate sputter deposition rates and dependence on various parameters. Identify different types of sputtering systems.
(a, b, g, m)

10. Learn the fundamentals of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and its benefits. Understand various types of CVD reactions, including pyrolysis, photolysis, oxidation, and reduction. (a, b, e, g)

11. Identify CVD performance parameters and learn their influencing factors. Investigate key features and uses of various types of CVD, including APCVD, LPCVD, and PECVD.
(a, b, e, g, m)

12. Understand and distinguish between various types epitaxy processes, including vapor phase epitaxy, solid phase epitaxy, molecular beam epitaxy, and metallo-organic CVD.
(a, b, e, g)

13. Explain various conditions important in the epitaxial deposition process, including type of substrate, lattice matching, temperature, cleanliness, electric field, and types of precursors.

C. Upon completion of the instructional units on Etching and Photoablation, the students should be able to:

1. Identify the key characteristics of different dry etching processes, including sputtering, RIE, reactive ion beam etching, plasma etching, and chemically assisted ion beam etching. (a, e, g)

2. Learn the fundamental physical principles of gaseous plasma discharges, their important operating characteristics, and their applications in dry etching processes. (a, e, g, m)

3. Illustrate various types of dry etching equipment, including two-electrode RF sputtering system, rotating substrate ion beam etching system, and hexode RIE batch reactor.
(a, e, g, k)

4. Identify the main chemical reactive species and the fundamental chemical reactions for etching of various semiconductors, metals, oxides, and nitrides. (a, e, g)

5. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of wet etching and dry etching, including CD control, directionality, automation, scaling, selectivity, speed, defect generation, and cost. (a, b, e, g, m)

6. Understand the fundamental principles of excimer laser photoablation as a dry etching process. Explain bond breaking, dependence on wavelength, and threshold mechanism.
(a, b, e, g, m)

7. Identify the major applications of photoablation, including electronic packaging, inkjet printing, materials processing, and medicine, and illustrate the major drivers for each.
(a, e, g)

8. Give a variety of examples of materials suitable for processing by photoablation, including polymers, photoresists, metals, and oxides, and describe their key characteristics. (a, e, g)

9. Understand the applications of UV laser photoablation in the fabrication of microelectronic packaging products, especially via generation in high-density multilayer circuits. (a, e, g)

D. Upon completion of the instructional units on Microelectronics Manufacturing, the students should be able to:

1. Identify various surface analytical methods widely employed in the semiconductor industry for materials and failure analysis. (a, b, e, g)

2. Explain the fundamental aspects of semiconductor fabrication facilities, including clean rooms, work flow and transport, equipment installation, and automation. (a, g)

3. Illustrate the key similarities and differences between the manufacturing requirements for semiconductor devices and other electronic products such as flat-panel displays. (a, g, k)

4. Understand the safety practices used in microelectronics fabrication facilities. (a, g)

Last updated: 5/23/2013