ECE 472
Biomedical Ultrasound Imaging
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Section  Type  Times  Days  Location  Instructor 

A  LEC  1000  1050  M W F  241 Everitt Lab  Michael Oelze 
Official Description  Theoretical and engineering foundations of ultrasonic imaging for medical diagnostics. Conventional, Doppler, and advanced ultrasonic imaging techniques; medical applications of different ultrasonic imaging techniques; engineering problems related to characterization of ultrasonic sources and arrays, image production, image quality, the role of contrast agents in ultrasonic imaging, and system design. Course Information: Prerequisite: ECE 329. 

Subject Area  Biomedical Imaging, Bioengineering, and Acoustics 
Course Prerequisites  Credit in ECE 329 
Course Directors  
Detailed Description and Outline 
Topics:
Anatomical Imaging:
Functional Imaging:
Advanced ultrasonic imaging:
Grading: 26%  Homework; 44%  Exam I, II; 30%  Final Exam. Homework will consist of 4 to 6 problems a week. 
Texts 
Lecture Notes, Select literature R. Cobbold, Fundamentals of Biomedical Ultrasound 
Course Goals 
The overall objective of this course is to familiarize students with most of the theoretical and engineering foundations of ultrasonic imaging for medical diagnostics. Conventional, Doppler, and advanced ultrasonic imaging techniques will be described. Students will be introduced to important medical applications of different ultrasonic imaging techniques. Engineering problems related to characterization of ultrasonic sources and arrays, image production, image quality, the role of contrast agents in ultrasonic imaging, and system design will be examined.

Instructional Objectives 
A. by the time of exam number one (after 12 lectures), the student should be able to do the following: 1. Derive the classical acoustic wave equation assuming linear wave propagation (a). 2. Determine the acoustic pressure, condensation, particle velocity, particle displacement, intensity, or acoustic density given anyone of these parameters (a). 3. Determine the frequency, wavelength, period, wave number, attenuation, and direction of propagation of acoustic waves given an acoustic wave function (a). 4. Find the attenuation of an ultrasonic wave given measurements of the ultrasonic wave at two different locations (a). 5. Convert pressure, attenuation and intensity to a decibel scale from the amplitude and vice versa (a). 6. Calculate the time average intensity of a given ultrasonic waveform (a). 7. Apply the boundary conditions at an interface between two media to determine the general form of the pressure reflection and transmission coefficients (a). 8. Calculate the pressure reflection and transmission coefficients from the impedance values of two media (a). 9. Determine the sound speed of the material media given signals reflected from the front and back surfaces of the material (a). 10. Identify the tradeoffs between axial resolution and acoustic energy (a). 11. Identify the relationship between pulse length and axial resolution in ultrasonic imaging (a). 12. Determine the thickness of a piezoelectric crystal required to produce a particular frequency of ultrasound (a). 13. Write the expression for simple acoustic source (a). 14. Apply the principle of superposition in the field from a simple acoustic source to construct fields from more complicated apertures (a). 15. Determine the beam pattern of a circular piston transducer and determine the beam width from the beam pattern function (a). 16. Identify the tradeoffs between lateral resolution, aperture diameter, ultrasonic frequency, and apodization (a), (c), (e). 17. Apply the spectral source method to determine the far field pattern of ultrasonic sources (a). 18. Find the far field beam pattern given an arbitrary aperture function (a). B. By the time of exam number two (after 24 lectures), the student should be able to the following: 19. Identify three methods for focusing singleelement ultrasonic sources (a). 20. Determine the beam width for a focused ultrasonic source in terms of the fnumber and wavelength (a). 21. Determine the depth of field for focused ultrasound source in terms of the fnumber and wavelength (a). 22. Identify the tradeoff between spatial resolution, ultrasonic energy, and depth of field for focused ultrasound sources (a). 23. Determine the focal gain for a given ultrasonic source with particular focal properties (a). 24. Identify the differences in beam fields between monochromatic waves and higher bandwidth waveforms from a focused source (a). 25. Calculate the shift in center frequency of a pulse due to frequency dependent attenuation and bandwidth (a). 26. Construct an ultrasonic Bmode image from raw RF data (a). 27. Detect the envelope of an RF waveform using the Hilbert transform (a). 28. Identify Bmode, Mmode, Cmode, and Amode ultrasonic images and how each are constructed (a). 29. Quantify the axial resolution in terms of the envelope of the pulse, bandwidth of the pulse, Rayleigh criteria, and the modulation transfer function (a). 30. Quantify the contrast resolution in terms of the contrast ratio and the contrast to noise ratio (a), (l). 31. Identify the tradeoffs between contrast resolution and signaltonoise ratio, spatial resolution, presence of side lobes, and the dynamic range of the system (a), (l). 32. Calculate the field due to an array of ultrasonic elements including the effects of the elements factor, steering, focusing, minimizing grating lobes, and apodization (a). 33. Design an ideal array system for ultrasonic imaging including synthetic aperture imaging techniques (a), (c). 34. Apply beamforming principles to achieve dynamic focusing of arrays (a). 35. Determine the reduction in grating lobe levels due to pulsing of ultrasound (a). 36. Determine the scattered field due to ultrasound contrast agent and how this affects image contrast (a). 37. Derive the nonlinear acoustic wave equation based on first principles (a). 38. Determine the shock distance, Goldberg number, and mock number for different tissues given their nonlinear coefficients (a). 39. Identify the tradeoffs between fundamental imaging and harmonic imaging based on nonlinear ultrasonic propagation (a). 40. Identify the tradeoffs between methods for processing harmonic images including: a band pass filter technique, pulse inversion, and pulse to pulse amplitude modulation (a). B. By the time of exam number three (after 40 lectures), the student should be able to the following: 41. Write the expression for the Doppler shift frequency in terms of the interrogating frequency and the speed of a moving object (a). 42. Calculate the Doppler shift from blood moving in a particular velocity when exposed to ultrasound field (a). 43. Identify the tradeoffs between CW Doppler and PW Doppler in ultrasonic imaging (a). 44. Find the Doppler signal through heterodyning and filtering of the RF ultrasound signal (a). 45. Calculate the Doppler shift using PW Doppler and a multipulse sampling technique (a). 46. Identify the tradeoffs between low PRF and high PRF PW Doppler imaging (a). 47. Obtain direction of blood flow using quadrature sampling and PW Doppler (a). 48. Obtain blood flow velocity using time domain techniques (a). 49. Identify tradeoffs between power Doppler and color flow imaging and how each of these images are constructed (a). 50. Determine the gain in signaltonoise ratio, side lobe levels, and spatial resolution using coded excitation and pulse compression in ultrasonic imaging (a). 51. Obtain the normalized backscatter coefficient from ultrasound signals backscattered from tissues (a). 52. Relate the spectral content of backscattered signals from ultrasound to underline scatterer properties (a), (l). 53. Obtain attenuation estimates from insertion loss data (a). 54. Construct a strain image from ultrasound signals from compressed tissues using cross correlation techniques (a). 