Lynford L. Goddard

Electrical and Computer Engineering
Lynford L. Goddard
Lynford L. Goddard
Associate Professor
2254 Micro and Nanotechnology Lab
208 N. Wright Street
Urbana Illinois 61801
(217) 244-0799

Primary Research Area

  • Microelectronics and Photonics - Semiconductor lasers and photonic devices

Education

PhD in Physics with minor in Math, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 2005

For more information

Teaching Statement

In spring 2014, I am teaching, ECE 536, "Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics".

Research Statement

My research group, the Photonic Systems Laboratory, studies the ways that light, and lasers in particular, can be used for sensing and measurement, communications, and data processing. The research focuses on fabricating, characterizing, and modeling individual lasers and photodetectors, photonics-based sensors, instrumentation, and integrated circuits, as well as developing new processing, inspection, and characterization techniques, and testing novel semiconductor materials and devices. Applications include hydrogen detection for fuel cells, carbon dioxide detection for reducing post harvest food loss, optical spectrum analysis and quantitative phase microscopy for metrology, integrated microring Bragg reflectors for narrow linewidth lasers and next generation chip-scale communication systems, and optical logic, memory and switches for high speed data processing.

Undergraduate Research Opportunities

1. The Photonic Systems Laboratory is accepting applications for undergraduate students interested in completing a senior research thesis in AY 2014-2015. The student must have a solid academic record and be self motivated, eager to test out new measurement or simulation techniques, and able to commit the time and effort during the academic year necessary to complete the thesis (usually >10 hours per week). Programming skills in LabVIEW or Matlab, or prior research experience or coursework in Optics would be a definite plus. Interested applicants should email an updated resume to Professor Goddard.

2. The group is also looking for an undergraduate student (at any grade level) who has taken ECE 444 to develop processing recipes for depositing silicon dioxide using the new LPCVD machine in MNTL. The student would also assist with photolithography, etching, and measuring the optical loss of the resulting devices.

Research Interests

  • Microscopy for Material Science
  • Computational Electromagnetics for Photonics
  • Semiconductor Band Structure Modeling
  • Materials Characterization
  • Low Loss Semiconductor/Dielectric Waveguides and Interconnects
  • Semiconductor Lasers, Modulators, and Detectors
  • Nano and Micro Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NOEMS/MOEMS)
  • Nanofabrication
  • Photonic Integrated Circuits
  • All-optical Data Processing Systems
  • Photonics-based Metrology and Instrumentation
  • Photonics-based Sensors
  • Optoelectronics

Research Areas

  • Device modeling
  • Lasers and optical physics
  • Microcavity lasers and nanophotonics
  • Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)
  • Microelectronic and photonic device modeling
  • Modeling and simulation of laser systems
  • Nano-photonics
  • Nanotechnology
  • Optical communications
  • Photonic integrated circuits (PICs)
  • Semiconductor electronic devices
  • Semiconductor lasers and photonic devices
  • Semiconductor materials
  • Sensors

Books Authored or Co-Authored (Original Editions)

S. Purandare, S. Qin, S.-V. Dhople, A. Dominguez-Garcia, R. Pilawa, and L. L. Goddard, Harnessing Energy, L. L. Goddard, editor. Creative Commons, 2012. http://psl.mntl.illinois.edu/HarnessingEnergy.zip

Chapters in Books

S. McKeown and L. L. Goddard, "Hydrogen Detection Using a Single Palladium Nano-aperture on a Fiber Tip," Chapter 15 in Lab on Fiber Technology, A. Cusano, M. Consales, A. Crescitelli, A. Ricciardi, editors. Springer, in press.

Selected Articles in Journals

  • T. Kim*, R. Zhou*, L. L. Goddard and G. Popescu, "Quantitative Phase Imaging (QPI): Metrology Meets Biology" (invited) IEEE Photonics Journal, DOI: 10.1109/JPHOT.2014.2309647 (Mar 2014).
  • C. Edwards, H. Pham, T. Nguyen, B. Bhaduri, M. Mir, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, "Effects of Spatial Coherence in Diffraction Phase Microscopy," Opt. Express 22, 5133-5146 (Feb 2014).
  • M.-F. Xue, Y. M. Kang, A. Arbabi, S. J. McKeown, L. L. Goddard, and J.-M. Jin, "Fast and Accurate Finite Element Analysis of Large-Scale Three-Dimensional Photonic Devices with a Robust Domain Decomposition Method," Opt. Express 22, 4437-4452 (Feb 2014).
  • G. Rajshekhar, B. Bhaduri, C. Edwards, R. Zhou, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, "Nanoscale topography and spatial light modulator characterization using wide-field quantitative phase imaging" Opt. Express 22, 3432-3438 (Feb 2014).
  • B. Bhaduri, C. Edwards, H. Pham, R. Zhou, L. L. Goddard and G. Popescu, "Diffraction phase microscopy: principles and applications in materials and life sciences," (invited) accepted in Advances in Optics and Photonics.
  • T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, "White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells," Nature Photonics, DOI: 10.1038/NPHOTON.2013.350 (Jan 2014).
  • Y. M. Kang, M.-F. Xue, A. Arbabi, J.-M. Jin, and L. L. Goddard, "Modal expansion approach for accurately computing resonant modes in a high Q optical resonator," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 56, 278-284. doi: 10.1002/mop.28035 (Dec 2013).
  • A. Arbabi and L. L. Goddard, "Measurements of the refractive indices and thermo-optic coefficients of Si3N4 and SiOx using microring resonances," Optics Letters 38 (19), 3878-3881 (Oct 2013).
  • T. Kim, R. Zhu, T. H. Nguyen, R. Zhou, C. Edwards, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, "Deterministic signal associated with a random field," Opt. Express 21, 20806-20820 (Aug 2013).
  • R. Zhou, C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, "Detecting 20 nm Defects in Large Area Nanopatterns using Optical Interferometric Microscopy," Nano Letters 13 (8), 3716-3721 (Aug 2013).
  • B. G. Griffin, A. Arbabi, and L. L. Goddard, "Engineering the Sensitivity and Response Time of Edge-Emitting Laser Hydrogen Sensors," IEEE Sensors Journal 13, 3098-3105 (Aug 2013).
  • C. Edwards, K. Wang, R. Zhou, B. Bhaduri, G. Popescu, and L. Goddard, "Digital projection photochemical etching defines gray-scale features," Opt. Express 21, 13547-13554 (Jun 2013).
  • B. Griffin, A. Arbabi, M. Peun Tan, A. Kasten, K. Choquette, and L. Goddard, "Demonstration of enhanced side-mode suppression in metal-filled photonic crystal vertical cavity lasers," Opt. Lett. 38, 1936-1938 (Jun 2013).
  • H. Pham, C. Edwards, L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, "Fast phase reconstruction in white light diffraction phase microscopy," Appl. Opt. 52, pp. A97-A101 (Oct 2012).
  • S. McKeown and L. Goddard, "Hydrogen Detection using Polarization Diversity via a Sub-wavelength Fiber Aperture," IEEE Photonics Journal 4, pp 1752-1761 (Oct 2012).
  • A. Arbabi and L. Goddard, "Dynamics of Self-heating in Microring Resonators," IEEE Photonics Journal 4, pp. 1702-1711 (Oct 2012)
  • C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, and L. Goddard, "Optically monitoring and controlling nanoscale topography during semiconductor etching," Light Sci Appl 1, e30; doi:10.1038/lsa.2012.30 (Sep 2012).
  • A. Arbabi and L. Goddard, "Integrated Optical Resonators: Progress in 2011," (invited) IEEE Photonics Journal 4, (2), pp. 574-577 (Apr 2012).
  • B. Griffin, A. Arbabi, A. Kasten, K. Choquette, and L. Goddard, "Hydrogen Detection Using a Functionalized Photonic Crystal Vertical Cavity Laser," (invited) IEEE J. Quantum Electronics Special Issue 48, pp. 160-168 (Feb 2012).
  • A. Arbabi, Y. M. Kang, C.-Y. Lu, E. Chow, and L. Goddard, "Realization of a narrowband single wavelength microring mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, pp. 091105-1-3 (Aug 2011).
  • A. Arbabi, Y. M. Kang, and L. Goddard, "Cylindrical coordinates coupled mode theory," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, pp. 1769-1774 (Dec 2010).
  • Y. M. Kang, A. Arbabi, and L. Goddard, "Engineering the spectral reflectance of microring resonators with integrated reflective elements," Opt. Express. 18, pp. 16813-16825 (Jul 2010).
  • Y. M. Kang, A. Arbabi, and L. Goddard, "A microring resonator with an integrated Bragg grating: a compact replacement for a sampled grating distributed Bragg reflector," Opt. Quantum Electron. 41, pp. 689–697, DOI 10.1007/s11082-010-9380-4 (Apr 2010).
  • W. Qiu, Y. M. Kang, and L. Goddard, “Quasi-continuous Refractive Index Tailoring of SiNx and SiOxNy for Broadband Anti-reflective Coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, pp. 141116-1-3 (Apr 2010).
  • G. Cole, E. Behymer, T. Bond, and L. Goddard, “Short-wavelength MEMS-tunable VCSELs,” Opt. Express 16, pp. 16093-16103 (Sep 2008).
  • G. Cole, E. Behymer, L. Goddard, and T. Bond, "Fabrication of suspended dielectric mirror structures via xenon difluoride etching of an amorphous germanium sacrificial layer," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 26, (2), pp. 593-597 (Mar/Apr 2008).
  • M. Pocha, L. Goddard, T. Bond, R. Nikolic, and E. Behymer, "Electrical and optical gain lever effects in InGaAs/GaAs double quantum well lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, (10), pp. 860-68 (Oct 2007)
  • L. Goddard, S. Bank, M. Wistey, H. Yuen, Z. Rao, and J.S. Harris Jr., "Recombination, gain, band structure, efficiency, and reliability of 1.5 micron GaInNAsSb/GaAs lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 97, pp. 083101-1-15 (Apr 2005)
  • S. Bank, M. Wistey, L. Goddard, H. Yuen, V. Lordi, and J.S. Harris Jr., "Low-Threshold Continuous-Wave 1.5 micron GaInNAsSb Lasers Grown on GaAs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, (6), pp. 656-64 (Jun 2004)
  • L. Goddard, M. Kneissl, D. Bour, and N. Johnson, "Gain characteristic of continuous-wave InGaN multiple quantum well laser diodes during life testing," J. Appl. Phys. 88, (7) pp. 3820-3 (Oct 2000)

Articles in Conference Proceedings

  • R. Zhou*, T. Kim*, L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, "Solving the scattering inverse problem in the wavevector space," accepted to OSA Conference on Biomedical Optics, Miami, FL, paper 1947147 (Apr 2014).
  • T. Kim*, R. Zhou*, L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, "White light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells for 3D and 4D quantitative phase imaging," accepted to OSA Conference on Biomedical Optics, Miami, FL, paper 1947363 (Apr 2014).
  • R. Zhou, C. Edwards, G. Popescu, and L. Goddard, "9nm node wafer defect inspection using visible light," SPIE Advanced Lithography Conference, San Jose, CA, paper 9050-41 (Feb 2014).
  • A. Arbabi and L. L. Goddard, "Grating Assisted Mode Coupling in Microring Resonators," (invited) IEEE Photonics Conference, Bellevue WA, paper WD2.1 (Sep 2013).
  • A. Arbabi, B. G. Griffin, and L. L. Goddard, "An Active-Passive Monolithic Integration Platform with Low Loss Passive Section," IEEE Photonics Conference, Bellevue WA, paper MF3.2 (Sep 2013).
  • C. Edwards, S. J. McKeown, J. Zhou, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, "Observing hydrogen induced deformations in palladium thin-films," IEEE Photonics Conference, Bellevue WA, paper THA3.4 (Sep 2013).
  • B. G. Griffin, A. Arbabi, and L. L. Goddard, "Functionalized Distributed Feedback Lasers for Hydrogen Sensing Applications," IEEE Photonics Conference, Bellevue WA, paper THA3.3 (Sep 2013).
  • R. Zhou, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, "Diffraction phase microscopy and image post-processing for 22 nm node wafer defect inspection," SRC Tech Con., Austin TX, paper 13.3 (Sep 2013).
  • T. Kim, R. Zhou, L. Goddard and G. Popescu, "White light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells," Engineering Conferences International, Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery, Lake Tahoe, CA, (Jun 2013).
  • C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, S. J. McKeown, R. Zhou, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, "Optical inspection and metrology using diffraction phase microscopy," Surface Analysis Symposium, Urbana IL, (Jun 2013).
  • A. Arbabi and L. Goddard, "Single Wavelength Microring Laser," accepted to Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (CLEO), San Jose CA, paper CM3F.2 (Jun 2013).
  • R. Zhou, L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, "Finding defects in a 22 nm node wafer with visible light," accepted to Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (CLEO), San Jose CA, paper AF1J.2 (Jun 2013).
  • R. Zhou, L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, "22nm node wafer inspection using diffraction phase microcopy and image post processing," Advanced Lithography Conference, Proc. SPIE 8681, pp. 86810G-1-7 (Apr 2013).
  • R. Zhou, C. Edwards, G. Popescu, and L. Goddard, "Diffraction Phase Microscopy for Wafer Inspection," accepted to IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC), Burlingame CA, paper WBB2 (Sep 2012).
  • A. Arbabi and L. Goddard, "Determination of Waveguide Core and Cladding Refractive Indices using Single Wavelength Microring Reflectors," accepted to IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC), Burlingame CA, paper TuG1 (Sep 2012).
  • Y. M. Kang, A. Arbabi, and L. Goddard, "Resolving Split Resonant Modes in Microrings," accepted to IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC), Burlingame CA, paper ThP5 (Sep 2012).
  • L. Goddard, M. Gillette, J. Lewis, S. Boppart, and G. Popescu, "Quantitative Phase Imaging," NSF-CBET Grantee Conference, Baltimore MD, (Jun 2012).
  • M. Raval, S. McKeown, A. Arbabi, and L. Goddard, "Palladium Based Fabry-Pérot Etalons for Hydrogen Sensing," OSA Optical Sensors Conference, Monterey CA, paper STh2B.5 (Jun 2012).
  • R. Zhou, S. McKeown, B. Griffin, B. Amnueypornsakul, H. Huang, S. Eckhoff, D. Wasserman, and L. Goddard, "CO2 sensing with a 2005 nm thulium holmium co-doped fiber laser," OSA Optical Sensors Conference, Monterey CA, paper STh2B.4 (Jun 2012).
  • B. Griffin, A. Arbabi, and L. Goddard, "Coupled Mode Analysis of a Distributed Bragg Reflector Laser for Hydrogen Detection," OSA Optical Sensors Conference, Monterey CA, paper STh1B.6 (Jun 2012).
  • A. Arbabi, P.-K. Lu, B. Griffin, and L. Goddard, "Thermally-induced nonlinearity and optical bistability in Si3N4 microring resonators," Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (CLEO), San Jose CA, paper JW4A.90 (May 2012).
  • B. Griffin, A. Arbabi, and L. Goddard, "Mode suppression in metal filled photonic crystal vertical cavity lasers," (invited), 2012 SPIE Photonics West Conference (PW), San Francisco, CA, Session 8276-22 (Jan 2012).
  • L. Goddard and S. McKeown, "Sub-wavelength patterned fiber tips for hydrogen detection," (invited) 1st Annual World Congress of Nano Science and Technology (Nano S&T), Dalian, China, track 1-3, paper 4 (Oct 2011).
  • C.-Y. Lu and L. Goddard, "Silicon Nitride Waveguide Smoothing Techniques," Notre Dame Connect competition (ND Connect), South Bend, IN (Sep 2011).
  • S. McKeown and L. Goddard, "Nano-Aperture Fiber Hydrogen Sensors," Nanoelectronic Devices for Defense and Security Conference (NanoDDS), New York, NY, paper 189 (Aug 2011).
  • L. Goddard, "Research Activities of the Photonic Systems Laboratory," (invited by the US National Academy of Sciences) Indonesian-American Kavli Frontiers of Science symposium, Bogor, Indonesia (Jul 2011).
  • B. Griffin and L. Goddard, "Edge Emitting Sensors for Accurate Quantification of Hydrogen Composition Above 0.5%," Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (CLEO), Baltimore MD, session CThC1 (May 2011).
  • A. Arbabi, Y. M. Kang, and L. Goddard, "Realization of small footprint microring reflectors," Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (CLEO), Baltimore MD, session JTuI25 (May 2011).
  • C. Edwards, G. Shine, and L. Goddard, "Modeling of Compact Pd Coated VCSELs for Hydrogen Sensing," in Proc. SPIE 7952, Photonics West Conf., San Francisco, CA, paper 7952-13 (Jan 2011).
  • B. Griffin, A. Kasten, K. Choquette, and L. Goddard, "Palladium-Coated Photonic Crystal Vertical Cavity Lasers for Hydrogen Sensing Applications," in Proc. IEEE Photonics Annual Meeting, Denver, CO (Nov 2010).
  • S. McKeown, B. Griffin, and L. Goddard, “Fiber Optic Hydrogen Sensor Utilizing Facet-Etched Metal Nano-apertures,” in Proc. IEEE Photonics Annual Meeting, Denver, CO (Nov 2010). Semifinalist for Best Student Paper Award.
  • B. Griffin, C.-L. Chang, A. Arbabi, and L. Goddard, "Pd Coated Edge-Emitting Lasers for Hydrogen Sensing Applications," in Proc. IEEE Sensors Conf., Waikoloa, HI, pp. 1710-1713 (Nov 2010).
  • A. Arbabi, Y. M. Kang, and L. Goddard, "Analysis and Design of a Microring Inline Single Wavelength Reflector," in Proc. Frontiers in Optics (FiO) Conf., Rochester, NY (Oct 2010).
  • Y. M. Kang and L. Goddard, “Semi-analytical modeling of microring resonators with distributed Bragg reflectors,” 9th International Conference on Numerical Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices (NUSOD), Gwangju, Republic of Korea, pp. 123-124 (Sep 2009).
  • L. Goddard, K. Wong, A. Garg, E. Behymer, G. Cole, and T. Bond, "Measurements of the complex refractive index of Pd and Pt films in air and upon adsorption of H2 gas," IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting, Newport Beach, CA, Session WS2 (Nov 2008).
  • L. Goddard, T. Bond, G. Cole, and E. Behymer, "Functionalized lateral surface coated lasers for chem.-bio detection," 2007 IEEE Sensors Conference, Atlanta, GA, pp. 1181-1184 (Oct 2007).
  • L. Goddard, J. Kallman, and T. Bond, "Rapidly reconfigurable all-optical universal logic gates," (invited) in Proc. SPIE 6368, Optics East Conf., Boston, MA, pp. 63680H-1-13 (Oct 2006).
  • L. Goddard, S. Bank, M. Wistey, H. Yuen, H. Bae, and J.S. Harris, Jr., "High power 1.5µm GaInNAsSb/GaAs lasers," (invited) IEEE LEOS Workshop on Semiconductor Lasers, Baltimore, MD (May 2005)
  • L. Goddard, S. Bank, M. Wistey, H. Yuen, and J.S. Harris Jr., "High performance GaInNAsSb/GaAs lasers at 1.5µm," (invited), in Proc. SPIE 5738, Photonics West Conf., San Jose, CA, pp. 180-191 (Jan 2005).
  • L. Goddard, S. Bank, M. Wistey, H. Yuen, H. Bae, and J.S. Harris Jr., "Reduced monomolecular recombination in GaInNAsSb/GaAs lasers at 1.5µm," 2004 Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Conference (LEOS), Rio Mar, PR, Session MO6 (Nov 2004)

Patents

  • L. Goddard, Y. M. Kang, and A. Arbabi, "Distributed reflector in a microring resonator," US patent #8,670,476 (filed Sep 2011, issued Mar 2014).
  • W. Qiu and L. Goddard, "Method of Plasma Etching Ga-Based Compound Semiconductors," (low rate etching), US Patent #8,343,878 (filed Dec 2009, issued Jan 2013).
  • W. Qiu and L. Goddard, "Method of Plasma Etching Ga-Based Compound Semiconductors," (high rate etching), US Patent #8,338,308 (filed Dec 2009, issued Dec 2012).
  • T. Bond, L. Goddard, and G. Cole, "Tunable Photonic Cavities for in-situ Spectroscopic Trace Gas Detection," US Patent #8,309,929 (filed Mar 2009, issued Nov 2012).
  • T. Bond, G. Cole, L. Goddard, and J. Kallman, "Low Loss, High and Low Index Contrast Waveguides in Semiconductors," US Patent #7,995,892 (filed Dec 2008, issued Aug 2011).
  • L. Goddard, T. Bond, and J. Kallman, "Rapidly Reconfigurable All-Optical Universal Logic Gates," US Patent #7,791,781 (filed May 2007, issued Sep 2010).

Magazine Articles

L. Goddard, "Learning from a laureate: Lynford Goddard sparks interest in engineering," People and Science p. 24 (Dec 2011).

Honors

  • Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE) (1/13/2010)
  • NSF CAREER Award (5/2010)
  • Indonesian-American Kavli Frontiers of Science Symposium Participant (2011)
  • Santa Clara Unified School District Hall of Fame (inducted 2011)
  • IEEE Senior Member (Aug 2010)
  • National Physical Science Consortium Scholar (1998-2004)
  • Phi Beta Kappa Award (1996)
  • Barry M. Goldwater Scholar (1996)
  • David S. Levine Award (1996)
  • Stanford University Presidential Award (1994)
  • National Society of Black Engineers Fellowship (1994)
  • American Physical Society Scholar (1993-1994)

Teaching Honors

  • ECE Ronald W. Pratt Faculty Outstanding Teaching Award (2012)
  • List of Teachers Ranked Excellent by Their Students (ECE 329) (Spring 2008)
  • Paul H. Kirkpatrick Award, excellence in teaching of physics. (2003)

Public Service Honors

AAAS Early Career Award for Public Engagement with Science (2011)